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Bushido: The Way of the Samurai (Square One Classics)

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In eighteenth-century Japan, Tsunetomo Yamamoto created the Hagakure, a document that served as the basis for samurai warrior behavior. For the next two hundred years, the Hagakure was secretly circulated among the "awakened" samurai--the samurai elite. In 1906, the book was first made available to the general Japanese public, and until 1945, its guiding principles greatly In eighteenth-century Japan, Tsunetomo Yamamoto created the Hagakure, a document that served as the basis for samurai warrior behavior. For the next two hundred years, the Hagakure was secretly circulated among the "awakened" samurai--the samurai elite. In 1906, the book was first made available to the general Japanese public, and until 1945, its guiding principles greatly influenced the Japanese ruling class--particularly those individuals in military power. However, the spirit of the Hagakure touched a deeper nerve in Japanese society. It was this book that shaped the underlying character of the Japanese psyche, from businessmen to politicians, from students to soldiers. Bushido: The Way of the Samurai is the first English translation of the Hagakure. From its opening line, "I have found the essence of Bushido: to die!" this work provides a powerful message aimed at the spirit, body, and mind of the samurai warrior. It offers beliefs that are difficult for the Western mind to embrace, yet fascinating in their pursuit of absolute service. By reading this book, one can better put into perspective the historical path that Japan has taken for the last three hundred years, and gain greater insight into the Japan of today. Tsunetomo Yamamoto was born in 1659 and devoted his adult life to the service of his Shogun master, Lord Mitsushige Nabeshima, and his clan, rising to become a highly respected samurai warrior. Upon his master’s death in 1700, Yamamoto renounced the world and retired to a hermitage. While at his retreat, a close friend and disciple recorded Yamamoto’s thoughts and ideas on what it meant to be a Japanese warrior. Although Yamamoto requested that the work never be published, the Hagakure--literally meaning "hidden behind the leaves"--did survive, influencing the development of a culture and serving as the basis of Bushido, the way of the samurai. Minoru Tanaka, translator, is a professor of English at a college in Kyoto, Japan. He has taught English to Japanese speakers for the past thirty years. Justin F. Stone, editor, is an accomplished writer, musician, poet, and artist. He is fluent in the Japanese language and is a Master of T’ai Chi. Over the past thirty years, Stone has traveled extensively throughout Japan. He lives in Albuquerque, New Mexico.


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In eighteenth-century Japan, Tsunetomo Yamamoto created the Hagakure, a document that served as the basis for samurai warrior behavior. For the next two hundred years, the Hagakure was secretly circulated among the "awakened" samurai--the samurai elite. In 1906, the book was first made available to the general Japanese public, and until 1945, its guiding principles greatly In eighteenth-century Japan, Tsunetomo Yamamoto created the Hagakure, a document that served as the basis for samurai warrior behavior. For the next two hundred years, the Hagakure was secretly circulated among the "awakened" samurai--the samurai elite. In 1906, the book was first made available to the general Japanese public, and until 1945, its guiding principles greatly influenced the Japanese ruling class--particularly those individuals in military power. However, the spirit of the Hagakure touched a deeper nerve in Japanese society. It was this book that shaped the underlying character of the Japanese psyche, from businessmen to politicians, from students to soldiers. Bushido: The Way of the Samurai is the first English translation of the Hagakure. From its opening line, "I have found the essence of Bushido: to die!" this work provides a powerful message aimed at the spirit, body, and mind of the samurai warrior. It offers beliefs that are difficult for the Western mind to embrace, yet fascinating in their pursuit of absolute service. By reading this book, one can better put into perspective the historical path that Japan has taken for the last three hundred years, and gain greater insight into the Japan of today. Tsunetomo Yamamoto was born in 1659 and devoted his adult life to the service of his Shogun master, Lord Mitsushige Nabeshima, and his clan, rising to become a highly respected samurai warrior. Upon his master’s death in 1700, Yamamoto renounced the world and retired to a hermitage. While at his retreat, a close friend and disciple recorded Yamamoto’s thoughts and ideas on what it meant to be a Japanese warrior. Although Yamamoto requested that the work never be published, the Hagakure--literally meaning "hidden behind the leaves"--did survive, influencing the development of a culture and serving as the basis of Bushido, the way of the samurai. Minoru Tanaka, translator, is a professor of English at a college in Kyoto, Japan. He has taught English to Japanese speakers for the past thirty years. Justin F. Stone, editor, is an accomplished writer, musician, poet, and artist. He is fluent in the Japanese language and is a Master of T’ai Chi. Over the past thirty years, Stone has traveled extensively throughout Japan. He lives in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

59 review for Bushido: The Way of the Samurai (Square One Classics)

  1. 5 out of 5

    Abby

    I love the randomness of this book. One paragraph is a about how to wear your awesome samurai hat, and the next is about the proper way to decapitate someone.

  2. 5 out of 5

    فؤاد

    یاماموتو چونه تومو ياماموتو چونه تومو، يك سامورايى كهنه كار، پس از مردن اميرش، مى خواهد به سنت سامورايى ها، دست به سپوکه بزند و خود را همراه اميرش بكشد، اما پيش از اين، همين امير فرمان مؤكد بر لغو اين سنت داده. ياماموتو، بين تبعيت از سنت و تبعيت از امير فقيد، دومى را بر مى گزيند. از سامورايى گرى كناره مى گيرد، موها را مى تراشد و به سلك راهبى بودايى در مى آيد. سال ها بعد، سامورايى جوانى به ياماموتو بر مى خورد و ملازم او مى شود و حكمت ها و گزين گويه هايش را ياد داشت مى كند. مجموعۀ اين گزين گويه ها، یاماموتو چونه تومو ياماموتو چونه تومو، يك سامورايى كهنه كار، پس از مردن اميرش، مى خواهد به سنت سامورايى ها، دست به سپوکه بزند و خود را همراه اميرش بكشد، اما پيش از اين، همين امير فرمان مؤكد بر لغو اين سنت داده. ياماموتو، بين تبعيت از سنت و تبعيت از امير فقيد، دومى را بر مى گزيند. از سامورايى گرى كناره مى گيرد، موها را مى تراشد و به سلك راهبى بودايى در مى آيد. سال ها بعد، سامورايى جوانى به ياماموتو بر مى خورد و ملازم او مى شود و حكمت ها و گزين گويه هايش را ياد داشت مى كند. مجموعۀ اين گزين گويه ها، كتاب هاگاكوره را تشكيل مى دهد، كتابى غريب در اخلاق سامورايى گرى. کتاب کتاب از همان نخستین اندرز به صراحت اعلام می کند که "طریقت سامورایی بر مرگ استوار است، آن گاه که باید میان مرگ و زندگی یکی را انتخاب کنی، بی درنگ مرگ را برگزین" و سرتاسر کتاب چیزی نیست جز تکرار این اندرز به انحای مختلف. بندی از کتاب نیست که در آن اشاره ای به مرگ نشده باشد، حکایتی از سامورایی ها نقل نمی شود که در آن سامورایی ها به دلایلی که برای ما هیچ و پوچ می نماید دست به سپوکه نزده باشند. بزرگ ترین فضیلتی که یاماموتو برای آدمی بر می شمارد، پذیرفتن مرگ با وقار و آرامش، و در مقابل بی ارزش شمردن تمام شؤون این جهانی است. چرا که وقتی چیزی در این جهان برای کسی ارزش نداشته باشد، دیگر چه کاری برایش باقی می ماند جز آماده شدن برای مرگ؟ یاماموتو تعلیم می دهد که سامورایی با چه روغن هایی صورت را تدهین کند، تا پس از مرگ تا چند روز چهره اش شاداب بماند، چگونه هر روز از شمشیر و زره زنگار بگیرد و موهایش را مرتب کند که اگر زمان مرگش رسید به نظر ناآماده نرسد، و هر روز به انحای مختلف مرگ که ممکن است برایش روی دهد فکر کند و خود را "از پیش مرده بینگارد". این حد از مرگ اندیشی را تنها در تأملات مارکوس اورلیوس دیده ام، و این کتاب حتی در جایگاه بالاتری نسبت به تأملات قرار می گیرد. چرا که در این جا، مرگ نه به عنوان نقطۀ پایان گریزناپذیر زندگی، بلکه به عنوان غایت زندگی، هدفی که تمام حرکت ها باید رو به سوی آن داشته باشد، معرفی می شود. این مرگ، مرگ محض است. مرگی نیست که به خاطر زندگی پس از مرگ ارزش یافته باشد، یاماموتو که اکنون راهبی بودایی است و باید غایتش بودا شدن و رستگاری باشد، می گوید هرگز آرزوی رستگار شدن در سر نداشته، بلکه در مقابل اگر قرار است زندگی ای پس از مرگ باشد، دوست می دارد که باز در هیئت سامورایی به جهان برگردد تا باز بتواند بمیرد. نیستی محض. در مقابل هر چه رنگی از هستی دارد، چه هستی این جهانی یا آن جهانی. عنوان ثانوی کتاب، "کتاب سامورایی" است. اما خود یاماموتو اساس و بنیاد سامورایی گری را "مرگ" می داند. در نتیجه می توان عنوان ثانوی گویاتری برای کتاب انتخاب کرد: "هاگاکوره: کتاب مرگ". من این کتاب را نباید یک جا و پیوسته خواند. دفعۀ قبل این اشتباه را کردم، و نتیجه این شد که از میانۀ کتاب کم کم خسته شدم. در عوض بهتر است کتاب پراکنده و هر بار تنها چند بند یا حکایت از کتاب خوانده شود، کاری که در مرتبۀ دوم انجام دادم و در فرصت های کوتاه و وقت های بین کارها تکه تکه آن را خواندم. به این ترتیب کتاب تازگی اش را حفظ می کند و تبدیل به "ذکر" می شود: گفتاری که به طور مستمر تکرار می شود تا چیزی را به یاد آدمی بیاورد، در این جا: مرگ.

  3. 5 out of 5

    Chance

    It irks me that people don't know the history of this book. A lot of people seem to read it assuming that it's some sort of rule book that the samurai class carried around in their kimonos so as to follow its writings without err. This is not the case. The book was written after 100 years of peace in Japan, when the samurai class was transforming into an administrative class. Yes, that's right -- the author was some pencil-pusher for the state. This doesn't mean it isn't an interesting book. It irks me that people don't know the history of this book. A lot of people seem to read it assuming that it's some sort of rule book that the samurai class carried around in their kimonos so as to follow its writings without err. This is not the case. The book was written after 100 years of peace in Japan, when the samurai class was transforming into an administrative class. Yes, that's right -- the author was some pencil-pusher for the state. This doesn't mean it isn't an interesting book. Thinking about who Tsunetomo was can arguably make the book more interesting -- it's his romanticized, idyllic vision of what samurai are (or were) supposed to be.

  4. 5 out of 5

    Jen/The Tolkien Gal/ジェニファー

    Hagakure (Kyūjitai: 葉隱; Shinjitai: 葉隠; meaning Hidden by the Leaves or hidden leaves),[1] or Hagakure Kikigaki (葉隠聞書) is a practical and spiritual guide for a warrior, drawn from a collection of commentaries by the clerk Yamamoto Tsunetomo, former retainer to Nabeshima Mitsushige, the third ruler of what is now Saga Prefecture in Japan. Tashiro Tsuramoto (ja) compiled these commentaries from his conversations with Tsunetomo from 1709 to 1716; however, it was not published until many years Hagakure (Kyūjitai: 葉隱; Shinjitai: 葉隠; meaning Hidden by the Leaves or hidden leaves),[1] or Hagakure Kikigaki (葉隠聞書) is a practical and spiritual guide for a warrior, drawn from a collection of commentaries by the clerk Yamamoto Tsunetomo, former retainer to Nabeshima Mitsushige, the third ruler of what is now Saga Prefecture in Japan. Tashiro Tsuramoto (ja) compiled these commentaries from his conversations with Tsunetomo from 1709 to 1716; however, it was not published until many years afterwards. Written during a time when there was no officially sanctioned samurai fighting, the book grapples with the dilemma of maintaining a warrior class in the absence of war and reflects the author's nostalgia for a world that had disappeared before he was born This was so interesting and gave the absolute weirdest look into feudal samurai society. Review to come soon! I'm back everyone :)

  5. 5 out of 5

    Ahmad Sharabiani

    Hagakure: The Book of the Samurai, Yamamoto Tsunetomo Hagakure was largely forgotten for two centuries after its composition, but it came to be viewed as the definitive guide of the samurai during the Pacific War. Hagakure is also known as The Book of the Samurai, Analects of Nabeshima or Hagakure Analects. تاریخ نخستین خوانش: سال 1993 میلادی عنوان: راه و رسم سامورایی: آیین نامه سلحشوران ژاپن (هاگاکوره)؛ نویسنده: یاماموتو تسونه تومو؛ مترجم: هاشم رجب زاده؛ مشهد، آستان قدس، 1371؛ در 192 ص، مصور؛ چاپ Hagakure: The Book of the Samurai, Yamamoto Tsunetomo Hagakure was largely forgotten for two centuries after its composition, but it came to be viewed as the definitive guide of the samurai during the Pacific War. Hagakure is also known as The Book of the Samurai, Analects of Nabeshima or Hagakure Analects. تاریخ نخستین خوانش: سال 1993 میلادی عنوان: راه و رسم سامورایی: آیین نامه سلحشوران ژاپن (هاگاکوره)؛ نویسنده: یاماموتو تسونه تومو؛ مترجم: هاشم رجب زاده؛ مشهد، آستان قدس، 1371؛ در 192 ص، مصور؛ چاپ دیگر: تهران، کتاب پارسه؛ 1389؛ در 215 ص؛ شابک: 9786005026986؛ موضوع: بوشیدو - راه و رسم زندگی سامورایی از نویسندگان ژاپنی - سده 18 م عنوان: هاگاکوره: کتاب سامورایی؛ نویسنده: یاماموتو تسونه تومو؛ مترجم: هژیر انتصاری؛ویراستار: منصور کیانی؛ تهران، روشنان، 1386؛ در 182 ص؛ شابک: 9789649234809؛ عنوان: هاگاکوره: کتاب سامورایی؛ نویسنده: یاماموتو تسونه تومو؛ مترجم: رضا حسینی؛ تهران، چشمه، چاپ دوم 1389، در 176 ص؛ شابک: 9789643626518؛ چاپ سوم 1395؛ چاپ چهارم 1396؛ چاپ پنجم 1397؛ عنوان: هاگاکوره: طریقت سامورایی؛ نویسنده: یاماموتو تسونه تومو؛ مترجم از ژاپنی: ویلیام اسکات ویلسن؛ ترجمه از انگلیسی: آنتونی آرطونیان؛ محسن کاس نژاد؛ تهران، اختران، 1388؛ در 212 ص؛ شابک: 9789642070770؛ هاگاکوره (کیوجیتای ، شینجیتای): یعنی: (پنهان شده میان برگ‌ها یا برگ‌های پنهان)، یا:«هاگاکوره کیکیگاکی»، کتاب راهنمایی عملی، و روحانی برای یک جنگجو است، که بر اساس مجموعه شرح‌های نوشته شده، توسط یک سامورایی، به نام: «یاماموتو تسونه‌ تومو» که یکی از ملازمان پیشین «نابِشیما میتسوشیگه»، سومین حکمران منطقه‌ ای که امروزه در ژاپن، استان «ساگا» نامیده می‌شود، نگارش یافته‌ است. «تسوراموتو تاشیرو»، مجموعه شرح‌های مندرج در این کتاب را، در گفتگوهایی که با «تسونه‌ تومو»، از سال‌: 1709 میلادی، تا سال 1716 میلادی، داشته، گردآوری کرده‌ است؛ با اینحال، این مجموعه، تا سال‌های پس از آن، انتشار نیافت. کتاب «هاگاکوره»، با عناوینی همچون «کتاب سامورایی»، «قطعات ادبی نابشیما» و «قطعات ادبی هاگاکوره» نیز، شناخته می‌شود. کتاب موضوعات بسیار گوناگون دارد؛ از احساسات ژرف نویسنده نسبت به «طریقت سامورایی» گرفته، تا بحث در باره ی معانی «مراسم چای» یا توضیح اینکه مثلاً قصری ویژه ای، نام خود را چگونه برگزین کرده‌ است. به علاوه، به نظر نمی‌رسد، که کتاب برای انتشار در محافل عمومی نگاشته شده باشد. در یکی از مقدمات، نگارنده می‌گویند که در پایان همه ی یازده فصل به آتش افکنده شوند، و سپس گفته ی پدر خویش را بازگو می‌کند که می‌گویند: «پس از خواندن کتاب و امثال آن، بهتر است آن را در آتش‌ افکنی یا به دور اندازی. گفته شده‌ است، کتاب خواندن، کار دربار سلطنتی است؛ اما خاندان ناکانو با شهامت رزمی و به دست گرفتن گرزی از جنس چوب بلوط سروکار دارد». ا. شربیانی

  6. 4 out of 5

    Jon Nakapalau

    The best exposition on bushido I have ever read.

  7. 4 out of 5

    Aaron

    The definitive book of my adult life. This book was popularized in the film Ghost Dog: The Way of the Samurai, showing an assassin for the mob who lives according to the his interpretation of the principles of this book. That is how I first came across the book, and since then the book has been a central part of my life. The book is some 300 excerpts from a total of about 1,300 dictated to Yamamoto's attendant over the course of 7 years, between 1710 and 1716. Yamamoto was a samurai born some 60 The definitive book of my adult life. This book was popularized in the film Ghost Dog: The Way of the Samurai, showing an assassin for the mob who lives according to the his interpretation of the principles of this book. That is how I first came across the book, and since then the book has been a central part of my life. The book is some 300 excerpts from a total of about 1,300 dictated to Yamamoto's attendant over the course of 7 years, between 1710 and 1716. Yamamoto was a samurai born some 60 years into the Tokagawa era, the beginning of peace in Japan that would force the samurai class to redefine their role in society. Yamamoto holds strong to the principles, attitudes and teachings of an era of warfare before his own time, emphasizing extremism and fanaticism as an antidote to the mediocrity, laziness, foolishness and self-interest of the fellow samurai of his time. For all the criticisms I have read over the years about this book, most of them, while perhaps valid, overlook the wisdom and vitality of so much of his writing. While at times he insists on brashness over hesitation and violence and capital punishment over cowardice, he also advocates repeatedly to live and act with a compassionate attitude and to lighten a punishment on a condemned man when fitting. Several of the passages appear, at least at an initial reading, to contradict each other. I doubt Yamamoto would be concerned with that criticism. His main concern is investigating what it means to be a samurai; all the complications and problems discussed are meant for consideration, not for finding straightforward answers. Yamamoto offers no answers, but instead demands the proper attitude for a samurai. This book is not for the general public. I recommend it for anyone interested in samurai culture, military literature, Japanese literature, the martial arts, or philosophy.

  8. 4 out of 5

    LW

    da consultare ,nel caso si voglia cercare di capire cosa puo' passare per la testa ad un samurai... (o ronin che sia) che poi è questo,fondamentalmente : Kezuke no Kubi :) si può imparare qualcosa da un temporale. Quando un acquazzone ci sorprende, cerchiamo di non bagnarci affrettando il passo, ma anche tentando di ripararci sotto i cornicioni ci inzuppiamo ugualmente. Se invece, sin dal principio, accettiamo di bagnarci eviteremo ogni incertezza e non per questo ci bagneremo di più. Tale da consultare ,nel caso si voglia cercare di capire cosa puo' passare per la testa ad un samurai... (o ronin che sia) che poi è questo,fondamentalmente : Kezuke no Kubi :) si può imparare qualcosa da un temporale. Quando un acquazzone ci sorprende, cerchiamo di non bagnarci affrettando il passo, ma anche tentando di ripararci sotto i cornicioni ci inzuppiamo ugualmente. Se invece, sin dal principio, accettiamo di bagnarci eviteremo ogni incertezza e non per questo ci bagneremo di più. Tale consapevolezza si applica a tutte le cose.

  9. 4 out of 5

    Nate Meadows

    "After reading a few books such as this one, I feel I am starting to have an understanding of Japanese heritage and history. There is so much wisdom to be learned from them but also many problems with their ancient society that they are still struggling with today. NOTE: Because of the film Ghost Dog I imagined Forest Whitaker's voice reading this to me in my head the entire time."

  10. 5 out of 5

    Paria

    ین کتاب آیین ها و سنت های سامورایی های اهل ژاپن از زبان یک سامورایی به نام چونه تومو هستش. این موضوعات در قالب متن های کوتاه و مینیمالیسیتی گنجونده شدن و درمورد موضوعات متفاوتی مثل مرگ، وفاداری، اطاعت بی چون و چرا از امیر، شجاعت و بی پروا بودن و ... هستن. اسم کتاب واسم خیلی خیلی وسوسه انگیز بود و مشتاق بودم که این کتابو بخونم ولی متاسفانه اصلا مطابق تصوراتم نبود و در کل چندان جذاب نبود واسم. ین کتاب آیین ها و سنت های سامورایی های اهل ژاپن از زبان یک سامورایی به نام چونه تومو هستش. این موضوعات در قالب متن های کوتاه و مینیمالیسیتی گنجونده شدن و درمورد موضوعات متفاوتی مثل مرگ، وفاداری، اطاعت بی چون و چرا از امیر، شجاعت و بی پروا بودن و ... هستن. اسم کتاب واسم خیلی خیلی وسوسه انگیز بود و مشتاق بودم که این کتابو بخونم ولی متاسفانه اصلا مطابق تصوراتم نبود و در کل چندان جذاب نبود واسم. 

  11. 4 out of 5

    Ali Reda

    The Way of the Samurai is in the death of his ego, so he selflessly lives a life that embraces death with honor. So deals with the transcendental area including both life and death. If man considers himself dead, he will live his life in complete peace. Accepting Death is the only way to be free The Way of the Samurai is found in death. When it comes to either/or, there is only the quick choice of death. It is not particularly difficult. Be determined and advance. To say that dying without The Way of the Samurai is in the death of his ego, so he selflessly lives a life that embraces death with honor. So deals with the transcendental area including both life and death. If man considers himself dead, he will live his life in complete peace. Accepting Death is the only way to be free The Way of the Samurai is found in death. When it comes to either/or, there is only the quick choice of death. It is not particularly difficult. Be determined and advance. To say that dying without reaching one's aim is to die a dog's death is the frivolous way of sophisticates. When pressed with the choice of life or death, it is not necessary to gain one's aim. We all want to live. And in large part we make our logic according to what we like. But not having attained our aim and continuing to live is cowardice. This is a thin dangerous line. To die without gaining one's aim is a dog's death and fanaticism. But there is no shame in this. This is the substance of the Way of the Samurai. If by setting one's heart right every morning and evening, one is able to live as though his body were already dead, he gains freedom in the Way. His whole life will be without blame, and he will succeed in his calling. Be always prepared, you may not have time Although all things are not to be judged in this manner, I mention it in the investigation of the Way of the Samurai. When the time comes, there is no moment for reasoning. And if you have not done your inquiring beforehand , there is most often shame. Reading books and listening to people's talk are for the purpose of prior resolution. Above all, the Way of the Samurai should be in being aware that you do not know what is going to happen next, and in querying every item day and night. Victory and defeat are matters of the temporary force of circumstances. A person who knows but a little will put on an air of knowledge. This is a matter of inexperience. When someone knows something well, it will not be seen in his manner. Live in the moment and free your mind from anything else. There is surely nothing other than the single purpose of the present moment. A man's whole life is a succession of moment after moment. If one fully understands the present moment, there will be nothing else to do, and nothing else to pursue. Live being true to the single purpose of the moment. A Samurai's Vows Never be outdone in the Way of the Samurai. To be of good use to the master. To be filial toward my parents. To manifest great compassion, and to act for the sake of Man.

  12. 5 out of 5

    Hesam Ghaeminejad

    اولین بار اسم هاگاکوره یا بوشیدو در اوایل سال در هنگام تماشای اثر تحسین برانگیز جیم جارموش بنام «گوست داگ: طریقت سامورایی» به گوشم خورد، شخصیت اصلی پس از انجام هر عملی بخش از این گزین گویی ها رو میخوند و چنان مجذوب شخصیت گوست داگ با بازی فارست ویتاکر شده بودم که خوندن کتاب هاگاکوره برام تبدیل به راهی برای دست یابی روش سامورایی شده بود درمورد کتاب باید گفت این اثر حاصل مصاحبت هفت ساله ی یاماموتوچونه تومو پیر و تاشیرو چوراموتو جوان بود و لحن نصیحت گرانه و خاطره گوی چونه تومو در آن هویداست؛ بخشی از اولین بار اسم هاگاکوره یا بوشیدو در اوایل سال ۲۰۰۰ در هنگام تماشای اثر تحسین برانگیز جیم جارموش بنام «گوست داگ: طریقت سامورایی» به گوشم خورد، شخصیت اصلی پس از انجام هر عملی بخش از این گزین گویی ها رو میخوند و چنان مجذوب شخصیت گوست داگ با بازی فارست ویتاکر شده بودم که خوندن کتاب هاگاکوره برام تبدیل به راهی برای دست یابی روش سامورایی شده بود درمورد کتاب باید گفت این اثر حاصل مصاحبت هفت ساله ی یاماموتوچونه تومو پیر و تاشیرو چوراموتو جوان بود و لحن نصیحت گرانه و خاطره گوی چونه تومو در آن هویداست؛ بخشی از کتاب بیشتر مسائل آیینی همچون اجرای مراسم سپوکه و هاراکیری بیان میشود ، در بخشی به بیان افتخارات امیر نابشیما می پردازد و در بخشی از اتفاقات روزمره درمنطقه امیرنشین ساگا سخن به میان می آورد اما آنچه کتاب را هیجان انگیز میکند فصول ابتدایی آن است که از طریقت سامورایی دم بر می آورد و جهان بینی یک سامورایی در عهد شوگان های ژاپن را به نمایش میگذارد ، این کتاب برای علاقه مندان به فرهنگ ژاپن و فلسفه سامورایی ها اثری درخور است، همچنین میتوان برای شناخت جامعه فئودالی ژاپن قرون وسطی از فصول پایانی آن بهره برد بخشی از کتاب: «طریقت سامورایی استوار بر مرگ است. آن‌گاه که باید بین مرگ و زندگی یکی را انتخاب کنی بی‌درنگ مرگ را برگزین. دشوار نیست؛ مصمم باش و پیش رو. این که بگوییم مردن بدون رسیدن به هدف خود مرگی بی ارزش است راهی است سبکسرانه برای پیچیده کردن موضوع. آن زمان که تحت فشار انتخاب زندگی یا مرگ قرار گرفته ای لزومی هم ندارد به هدف خود برسی»

  13. 4 out of 5

    Barney

    So, want to read a book written by a mid-level clerk about samurai that never existed in his own time? A book whose message was corrupted by the militaristic rulers of Japan following the Meiji Resotoration? If so, you've found the book you are looking for. This is a steamy pile, so bring some fresh gloves. If your black belt instructor is making you read this, hit him (or her) in the knee with it and ask for your money back. This is a prime example of how something awful can be made uniquely So, want to read a book written by a mid-level clerk about samurai that never existed in his own time? A book whose message was corrupted by the militaristic rulers of Japan following the Meiji Resotoration? If so, you've found the book you are looking for. This is a steamy pile, so bring some fresh gloves. If your black belt instructor is making you read this, hit him (or her) in the knee with it and ask for your money back. This is a prime example of how something awful can be made uniquely terrible in the right hands.

  14. 4 out of 5

    Chiara

    Knowing nothing about Samurai's history and/or tradition, I can take only the "philosphy" from this book. Death is considered the only very important thought, around which everything else must dance in one's life. Death is our ultimate destination, and everything must be done in view of that unavoidable event. I can agree, but I cannot wholly share the attitude of a Samurai about it, since I believe I can leave more seeds and fruits through my life than through my death. I can teach a lot with Knowing nothing about Samurai's history and/or tradition, I can take only the "philosphy" from this book. Death is considered the only very important thought, around which everything else must dance in one's life. Death is our ultimate destination, and everything must be done in view of that unavoidable event. I can agree, but I cannot wholly share the attitude of a Samurai about it, since I believe I can leave more seeds and fruits through my life than through my death. I can teach a lot with the way I approach death, of course, but I don't believe everything about me is decided in that one moment. A Samurai celebrates death through his whole life; I'd rather celebrate life through my own death, but it might be just points of view and in the end we might as well mean exactly the same thing. What I disagree on without the shadow of a doubt, is the view about women: weak and unable to raise children; creatures to be ashamed of, to hide, to get rid of as soon as possible... Mr Yamamoto should know some of the men and the women I got to know. Than he might change his mind - or commit seppuku :)

  15. 5 out of 5

    Mission Blue

    صادقانه، رک و صریح بگم: کتاب رو دوست نداشتم. بعد از خوندن هنر رزم و لذت بردن از اون، بنا بر توصیه ی یکی از دوستان توی ریویوشون(فکر می کنم آقای فواد بودن) تصمیم گرفتم این کتاب رو هم بخونم تا بتونم مقایسه ای داشته باشم ازش با کتاب هنر رزم. چیزی که باهاش مواجه شدم دنباله ای کشدار و طولانی بود از جملات قصاری که به شدت تاریخ انقضا داشتن! گمون نمی کنم بعد از گذشت سیصد سال از زمان نگاشته شدن این کتاب کسی بتونه این کتاب رو بخونه و آموزه هاش رو به کار ببنده. البته فکر می کنم با پس زمینه ی ذهنی اشتباهی صادقانه، رک و صریح بگم: کتاب رو دوست نداشتم. بعد از خوندن هنر رزم و لذت بردن از اون، بنا بر توصیه ی یکی از دوستان توی ریویوشون(فکر می کنم آقای فواد بودن) تصمیم گرفتم این کتاب رو هم بخونم تا بتونم مقایسه ای داشته باشم ازش با کتاب هنر رزم. چیزی که باهاش مواجه شدم دنباله ای کشدار و طولانی بود از جملات قصاری که به شدت تاریخ انقضا داشتن! گمون نمی کنم بعد از گذشت سیصد سال از زمان نگاشته شدن این کتاب کسی بتونه این کتاب رو بخونه و آموزه هاش رو به کار ببنده. البته فکر می کنم با پس زمینه ی ذهنی اشتباهی رفتم سراغ این کتاب. فکر می کردم با کتابی رو به رو هستم که می شه مثل در باب حکمت زندگی و یا هنر رزم به عنوان کتابی نسبتا کاربردی ازش استفاده کرد. اما بعد از خوندن بیش از نیمی از کتاب به این نتیجه رسیده ام که باید از این کتاب به عنوان منبعی برای مطالعه ی تاریخ فرهنگ مردم ژاپن استفاده کرد. صحبت از مرگ و سپوکه، برای منی که در قرن 21 زندگی می کنم و امیری ندارم که گوش به فرمانش باشم چندان کارآمد به نظر نمیاد! + به کتاب امتیاز نمی دم. در عین حال هم نمی ذارمش توی شلف ناتمام هام. می ذارم فعلا همین طوری بمونه تا ببینم بعدا می تونم تمومش کنم و وضعیتش رو تغییر بدم یا خیر!

  16. 4 out of 5

    مهسا

    این کتاب برای من نبود احساس بدی دارم از اینکه آگاهانه وقت تلف کردم

  17. 4 out of 5

    Reza Gharibi

    اين نوع نظام فكري و نظام رفتاري شون برام جذابيت فوق العاده زيادي داشت.

  18. 5 out of 5

    Amir

    مایلم از دو بعد این کتاب را ارزش گذاری کنم . اول محتوای آن به عنوان یک سند تاریخی که بیانگر ارزشها در ژاپن باستان است که ما را در پژوهش های تاریخی مان یاری میدهد ؛ دوم محتوای آن به عنوان فلسفه ای برای زندگی در جهان امروز . بدون هیچ بحثی این کتاب از بعد اول فوق العاده ارزشمند است. اما بعد دوم... اگرچه فکر کردن مداوم به مرگ میتواند مفید باشد (از این جهت که به زندگی معنا ببخشد) ، اما به شکلی که در این کتاب بیان شده واقعا فاجعه بار است چرا که نه تنها به زندگی معنایی نداده بلکه آن را کاملا بی ارزش و بی مایلم از دو بعد این کتاب را ارزش گذاری کنم . اول محتوای آن به عنوان یک سند تاریخی که بیانگر ارزشها در ژاپن باستان است که ما را در پژوهش های تاریخی مان یاری میدهد ؛ دوم محتوای آن به عنوان فلسفه ای برای زندگی در جهان امروز . بدون هیچ بحثی این کتاب از بعد اول فوق العاده ارزشمند است. اما بعد دوم... اگرچه فکر کردن مداوم به مرگ میتواند مفید باشد (از این جهت که به زندگی معنا ببخشد) ، اما به شکلی که در این کتاب بیان شده واقعا فاجعه بار است چرا که نه تنها به زندگی معنایی نداده بلکه آن را کاملا بی ارزش و بی معنی کرده است . تبدیل سلب حیات از دیگران (قتل) و خود (خودکشی) به مسئله ای عادی ، تمایل شدید و بی دلیل به خشونت برای حل مشکلات ، تقویت اختلافات طبقاتی ، تاکید بر حفظ شرافت خانوادگی (به بهای خون)، بی ارزشی فردیت ، عمده پیام های اخلاقی این کتابند . بنظرم این نظام اخلاقی اصلا مناسب نیست. با اینحال خاص و متفاوت بودن سرزمین آفتاب برای من حیرت انگیز و جذاب بود. گویی شکل گیری تمدن در این سرزمین از همه لحاظ مستقل از سایر مناطق دنیا است . موضوعی که بیان آن جالب است وجه اشتراک فرهنگ باستانی ایران و ژاپن است. جان فشانی برای شاه در گذشته ای دور که در شاهنامه به چشم میخورد و تا قبل عصر ناصری ادامه داشته ، در کتاب هاگاکوره نیز (فداکاری سامورایی در راه ارباب) عینا دیده میشود و گمان میکنم این ویژگی به این شدت فقط در گذشته ی این دو ملت بوده است.

  19. 4 out of 5

    Ramin Azodi

    هاگاکوره بیان دقیق و روشنی از طریقت سامورایی نیست. اما بدون شک در معرفی این طریقت به صورت حکایتوار، مختصر و مفید، موفق بوده است. برای من" مثالهای خلاقانهای که در ضمن پندهای اخلاقیاش میآورد خیلی جالب بود و همچنین تاکید همیشگیاش بر مرگ گریز ناپذیر و به قول خودش،" خود را همواره چون مرده انگاشتن فصل هفت و هشت "برای من" حوصله سر بر بود اما در دو فصل پایانی، حکایتها به همان جذابیت فصول اول برگشت. نهایتن این کتاب ممکن است باب طبع بعضی از شما نباشد خصوصن اگر با فرهنگ ژاپنی و طریقت سامورایی بیگانه باشید هاگاکوره بیان دقیق و روشنی از طریقت سامورایی نیست. اما بدون شک در معرفی این طریقت به صورت حکایت‌وار، مختصر و مفید، موفق بوده است. برای من" مثال‌های خلاقانه‌ای که در ضمن پند‌های اخلاقی‌اش می‌آورد خیلی جالب بود و همچنین تاکید همیشگی‌اش بر مرگ گریز ناپذیر و به قول خودش،" خود را همواره چون مرده انگاشتن فصل هفت و هشت "برای من" حوصله سر بر بود اما در دو فصل پایانی، حکایت‌ها به همان جذابیت فصول اول برگشت. نهایتن این کتاب ممکن است باب طبع بعضی از شما نباشد خصوصن اگر با فرهنگ ژاپنی و طریقت سامورایی بیگانه باشید البته که من هم، چنان آشنای صمیمی‌ای نبودم ولی "برای من"، خواندن‌اش لذت بخش بود.

  20. 4 out of 5

    Odile

    I read a selection of parts from Hagakure in the final year of high school for my end paper. Now, I picked up this illustrated hardcover copy in Dutch, which will make for a nice reference. It turns out its nearly 300 pages contain only a modest selection of the original work, so I wonder how many Hagakures are actually completely unabridged. The book is deservedly a classic of Japanese philosophy, and it gives a valuable contrast to works like Musashi's Book of Five Rings, who emphasises other I read a selection of parts from Hagakure in the final year of high school for my end paper. Now, I picked up this illustrated hardcover copy in Dutch, which will make for a nice reference. It turns out its nearly 300 pages contain only a modest selection of the original work, so I wonder how many Hagakures are actually completely unabridged. The book is deservedly a classic of Japanese philosophy, and it gives a valuable contrast to works like Musashi's Book of Five Rings, who emphasises other parts of samurai philosophy. To put it briefly, Musashi is all about victory, while Tsunetomo's all about death. I found this a very worthwhile version, though it would probably better to purchase the English original translation, which has the same layout. My version is translated two times, something which is rarely if ever an ideal situation. Regardless, it gets across the general messages of Hagakure quite well, and the aforementioned layour is pure bliss. A heavy hardcover, pages adorned with coloured natural patterns, and loads of beautiful japanese art and photography.

  21. 4 out of 5

    H

    "If one dedicates these four vows to the gods and Buddhas every morning, he will have the strength of two men and will never slip backward. One must edge forward like the inchworm, bit by bit. The gods and Buddhas, too, first started with a vow." A samurai's journal of anecdotes and aphorisms I've been rereading for years. It means something different to me each time, though the lessons are often the same ones I've forgotten. It's amazing how these lessons apply themselves to whatever my life is "If one dedicates these four vows to the gods and Buddhas every morning, he will have the strength of two men and will never slip backward. One must edge forward like the inchworm, bit by bit. The gods and Buddhas, too, first started with a vow." A samurai's journal of anecdotes and aphorisms I've been rereading for years. It means something different to me each time, though the lessons are often the same ones I've forgotten. It's amazing how these lessons apply themselves to whatever my life is currently focusing on.

  22. 4 out of 5

    Hadis

    کتاب رو از نظرات دوستان برای خوندن انتخاب کردم و واقعا خوشحالم از این بابت هاگاکوره به معنای پنهان شده میان برگ ها راهنمای عملی و روحانی برای سامورایی هاست که سال میلادی از گفته های نویسنده گردآوری شده کتاب رو از نظرات دوستان برای خوندن انتخاب کردم و واقعا خوشحالم از این بابت هاگاکوره به معنای پنهان شده میان برگ ها راهنمای عملی و روحانی برای سامورایی هاست که سال ۱۷۰۰ میلادی از گفته های نویسنده گردآوری شده

  23. 5 out of 5

    Víctor

    "El samurái debe obrar sin dudar, sin confesar el más mínimo cansancio ni el más mínimo desánimo hasta concluir su tarea" Un libro que nos hace llegar, a través de anécdotas y reflexiones, el código del bushido. Recomiendo su lectura a todo aquel que sienta curiosidad por estos guerreros tan mitificados o que quiera conocer su pensamiento, su manera de vivir y sobre todo, su forma de afrontar la muerte.

  24. 4 out of 5

    Lostaccount

    “It is said that even after one’s head has been cut off, he can still perform some function.” The Hagakure, The book of the samurai, which is a kind of guidebook for Samurai, should be titled the book of the fanatic, exhorting as it does the “retainer” (a kind of Samurai personal servant) to behead as many men as possible, and to live as if one has already died. The book is full of contradictions and non sequiturs that make it seem a bit ludicrous at times, but there’s also a fair bit of old “It is said that even after one’s head has been cut off, he can still perform some function.” The Hagakure, The book of the samurai, which is a kind of guidebook for Samurai, should be titled the book of the fanatic, exhorting as it does the “retainer” (a kind of Samurai personal servant) to behead as many men as possible, and to live as if one has already died. The book is full of contradictions and non sequiturs that make it seem a bit ludicrous at times, but there’s also a fair bit of old school wisdom. A few nuggets: “You cannot tell if a person is good or bad by his vicissitudes in life. Good or bad fortunes are matters of fate.” "In the highest level a man has the look of knowing nothing" “A person who becomes fatigued when unhappy is useless.” “At a time when the world is sliding into decline to excel is easy” The latter part of the book deals with being courageous in battle. There is lots of stuff about being determined to cut down the enemy no matter how many etc. (“Even if it seems certain that you will lose, retaliate”) and stories of Samurai taking bloodthirsty revenge, getting into petty disagreements which end in mass slaughter and Seppuku (ritual suicide). It’s clear from this book that Samurai lived by a strict code of honour that was suicidal and fanatical. For example: “With martial valour if one becomes like a revengeful ghost and shows great determination though his head is cut off he should not die” “The way of the samurai is in determination ... simply become insane and desperate” “Last year I went to the execution grounds to try my hand at beheading and found it an extremely good feeling” There’s also this: “In the last fifty years men’s pulse has become the same as women’s. Noticing this, in the treatment of the eye disease I applied women’s treatment to men and found it suitable ... thus I knew that men’s spirits had weakened and that they had become the same as women, and the end of the world had come.” “Looking at men today ... those who could be thought to have women’s pulses are many indeed, those who seem like real men few.” In fairness though, the author is lamenting the decline of the Samurai, in a more peaceful time. “That there are few men who are able to cut well in beheadings is further proof that men’s courage has waned" “For practice in cutting, execute some men who have been condemned to death” By the time this book was related by Yamamoto, living as a hermit, he was probably insane ... cutting people down and beheading and commiting ritual suicide was practiced regularly and frequently. In talking of beheading by Kaishakunin (person appointed to behead after Seppuku), he relates this: “In the practice of past time there were instances where the head flew off. It was said that it is best to cut leaving a little skin remaining so that it doesn’t fly off in the direction of verifying officials”. I leave you with this: “If you cut a face lengthwise, urinate on it, and trample on it with straw sandals, it is said the skin will come off” Fukahori, peace out ...

  25. 5 out of 5

    Nathalie Andrews

    It would be wrong to assume that this is a book of rules and etiquette for the samurai classes. It reads more like a collection of short stories or morality tales, interspersed at times with axioms. Many of the anecdotes offer lessons in virtue that might be universally applied. The meaning of others is less transparent. It would be very possible to dip in and out of this book and take a great deal of pleasure in reading it as something of a curiosity, offering a glimpse into another culture. A It would be wrong to assume that this is a book of rules and etiquette for the samurai classes. It reads more like a collection of short stories or morality tales, interspersed at times with axioms. Many of the anecdotes offer lessons in virtue that might be universally applied. The meaning of others is less transparent. It would be very possible to dip in and out of this book and take a great deal of pleasure in reading it as something of a curiosity, offering a glimpse into another culture. A cover to cover read-through offers a somewhat broader understanding, I think. Certainly one comes away with a more thorough understanding of the themes that run through the collection: duty and loyalty being paramount; death and a desire for death are also mentioned with alarming frequency. Certainly the concerns of the age are clear and as an insights into the ideology of the samurai class (and remember that these are ideals rather than the way that people actually lived) I found this a fascinating glimpse into their world. I recently finished reading Bellah's study of Tokugawa religion and it complements this book well.

  26. 4 out of 5

    Aman Mittal

    Hagaukure or 'In the Shadows of Leaves' is a powerful book with powerful words arranged in a manner of short anecdotes collected over a period of years covering a wide variety of subjects mostly providing an insight on the behaviour of a samurai (warrior). Though it is not considered as a philosophical book, as the main anecdotes are more in the form of teachings for a warrior, these basic teachings are still applicable today in different modes of life and to learn and apply these basic Hagaukure or 'In the Shadows of Leaves' is a powerful book with powerful words arranged in a manner of short anecdotes collected over a period of years covering a wide variety of subjects mostly providing an insight on the behaviour of a samurai (warrior). Though it is not considered as a philosophical book, as the main anecdotes are more in the form of teachings for a warrior, these basic teachings are still applicable today in different modes of life and to learn and apply these basic teachings, you are a warrior in the course of your life fighting the norms of society and one's own confidently. There is much knowledge to be found here from how to conduct yourself while in public view, and perspective on self-discipline. The book's functional philosophy also includes deep wisdom in the form of stories and sayings which makes it unique. This philosophy is refreshing because it has less to do with how one thinks, and everything to do with how one acts. The book is deservedly a classic of Japanese philosophy, and emphasizes on other parts of samurai philosophy as it provides glimpse of what a true Samurai should be like.

  27. 5 out of 5

    m2hozone

    كتاب هاگاکوره كتابى نوشته شده براساس آيين و سنت هاى سامورايى هاست كه حاصل معاشرت هفت ساله ياماموتو چونه تومو و تاشيرو چورا موتو جوان است كه لحنى نصيحت گرانه در موضوعاتى همچون:شجاعت،وفادارى،مرگ،كردار،اطاعت بى چون و چرا امير و... را درخود دارد! در قسمت هايى از كتاب بيشتر به توضيحات مسائل آيين سامورايى ها همچون سپوكه و هاراكيرى (-كه خودكشى تشريفاتى ژاپنى ها با روش دريدن شكم است-) تخصيص داده شده! اين كتاب براى عامه پسند نخواهد بود!اما براى كسانيكه به فرهنگ ژاپن و فلسفه سامورايى علاقه دارند قطعا كتابى كتاب هاگاکوره كتابى نوشته شده براساس آيين و سنت هاى سامورايى هاست كه حاصل معاشرت هفت ساله ياماموتو چونه تومو و تاشيرو چورا موتو جوان است كه لحنى نصيحت گرانه در موضوعاتى همچون:شجاعت،وفادارى،مرگ،كردار،اطاعت بى چون و چرا امير و... را درخود دارد! در قسمت هايى از كتاب بيشتر به توضيحات مسائل آيين سامورايى ها همچون سپوكه و هاراكيرى (-كه خودكشى تشريفاتى ژاپنى ها با روش دريدن شكم است-) تخصيص داده شده! اين كتاب براى عامه پسند نخواهد بود!اما براى كسانيكه به فرهنگ ژاپن و فلسفه سامورايى علاقه دارند قطعا كتابى جالب و خواندنى خواهد بود! 🙃

  28. 4 out of 5

    Eddie Blake

    Nézzük a jó oldalát, most már többet tudok a szamurájokról! :3

  29. 5 out of 5

    Elena Druță

    Mi-au plăcut lecțiile naratorului şi perspectiva sa în privința vieții unui samurai, a legilor (nescrise) pe care trebuie sã le urmeze şi viziunea asupra familiei, stăpânului şi a purității spiritului.

  30. 5 out of 5

    Laura

  31. 4 out of 5

    Mahmud

  32. 5 out of 5

    brawnski

  33. 5 out of 5

    Ryan Doherty

  34. 5 out of 5

    Ryan

  35. 4 out of 5

    Andrew Renna

  36. 4 out of 5

    Paul

  37. 5 out of 5

    Chris Blanton

  38. 4 out of 5

    Joel Erland

  39. 4 out of 5

    Nash

    I don't want to go into details about this book because I found I'm not ready to give my best shot at "analyzing" the Hagakure yet. But let's just say that between the two versions, that is, this one edited by Stone and the other one by Tarver, I recommend this one. But if you're really a hardcore fan in this field and wouldn't mind paying more, go for the hardcover, bi-lingual version of Wilson. That is one piece of real scholarship work! It also contains many more chapters from many more I don't want to go into details about this book because I found I'm not ready to give my best shot at "analyzing" the Hagakure yet. But let's just say that between the two versions, that is, this one edited by Stone and the other one by Tarver, I recommend this one. But if you're really a hardcore fan in this field and wouldn't mind paying more, go for the hardcover, bi-lingual version of Wilson. That is one piece of real scholarship work! It also contains many more chapters from many more volume of Hagakure you would find in ordinary "mass market" version just like this one.

  40. 4 out of 5

    Rashmi

  41. 4 out of 5

    Gil

  42. 5 out of 5

    Mungo

  43. 5 out of 5

    Peter

  44. 4 out of 5

    Marcos

  45. 4 out of 5

    er0k

  46. 4 out of 5

    Michael Satoh

  47. 4 out of 5

    Darryl Pierce

  48. 5 out of 5

    Adam

  49. 5 out of 5

    Chris

  50. 5 out of 5

    N C

  51. 4 out of 5

    Lkohtz

  52. 5 out of 5

    Christopher

  53. 5 out of 5

    Jeff

  54. 4 out of 5

    Sami

    "Bushido: The way of the Samurai" by Yamamoto Tsunetomo is the words of a power samurai (Yamamoto Tsunetomo) in his final days. Most of the book entails battle tactics and stories of battles, but through this stories a message about how to live your life better is portrayed. Like most wise samurai, Yamamoto belived that aspects that are learned in the battle field are ones that can be used to everyday life. I found this book very interesting because i am very into the whole "war verus life" "Bushido: The way of the Samurai" by Yamamoto Tsunetomo is the words of a power samurai (Yamamoto Tsunetomo) in his final days. Most of the book entails battle tactics and stories of battles, but through this stories a message about how to live your life better is portrayed. Like most wise samurai, Yamamoto belived that aspects that are learned in the battle field are ones that can be used to everyday life. I found this book very interesting because i am very into the whole "war verus life" philosophy books. It is also interesting to read because many aspects that are described by Yamamoto are things that japanese people take to heart and really do live by in thier society. So not does it only give you a perspective on your life, but also a insiders perspective on japanese society. It is also believed that some of the Kamikaze pilots read this book, and stood by its words as the reason they flew those planes(don't make any assumptions about the book being about suicide, cause its not.). In general if your going to read this addition of the book you should be able to deal with footnotes being at the back of the book, i found this tedious so i just left a post-it in the back for quick reference. All in all i give this book a 5/5 because of its invaluable lessons about life.

  55. 4 out of 5

    David

  56. 4 out of 5

    Nicholas

  57. 4 out of 5

    Alan Perkes

  58. 5 out of 5

    Merrari

  59. 4 out of 5

    Emily

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